Module 4  UM
Uncertainty associated with repeated measurements that do not give the same values. It includes an Activity of measuring the time it takes a piece of paper to fall to the floor, and another Activity of measuring the ratio of the circumference to the radius of a number of metal hoops. The module introduces:

Scattered or dispersed measurements
 Bellshaped curves, also called Gaussian distributions or normal distributions
 Gaussian probability distributions.
 The uncertainty in the estimated standard deviation
 Propagation of uncertainties
 The uncertainty in the mean
A 10 minute PowerPoint review of bellshaped curves that is useful after the students have read the Module but before they begin work on it. Primarily intended for instructors.
 Materials
 Uncertainty in Physical Measurements Module 4 Student Guide
 Uncertainties Introduction Student Guide
 Uncertainty Module4  Equipment List Equipment List and Setup